Persian Calendar

Discover everything you need to know about one of the longest chronological records in history with this page on the Persian or Iranian Calendar.

Iranian CalendarThe original Persian Calendars, also known as Iranian Calendars, are one of the longest chronological records in history. Having been used in Iran (Persia) for over two millennia, the Persian Calendar is one of the most historic Religious Calendars still in existence.

However, to suit both administrative and religious purposes, the Persian Calendar has been modified and refined many times over the years and the modern version of the Iranian Calendar is the official calendar used in Iran and Afghanistan.

History of the Persian Calendar

The earliest evidence indicates that Persians were one of the earliest cultures to use the Solar Calendar and shows that their Persian Calendar dates as far back as the second millennium B.C.

Inscriptions and Carvings found on ancient tablets show that the early Iranian culture used a 360 day calendar based entirely around solar observations. Although the days weren´t named, the twelve months of the year (consisting of 30 days) were named for festivals or activities relating to the pastoral year.

Months in the Persian Calendar

Months in the ancient Persian Calendar were divided into two or three parts depending on the Moon Phases. Every six years, a 13th month was added to keep the ancient Persian Calendar synchronized with the passing seasons. The table below lists the Persian Months in the ancient Persian Calendar:

Order Corresponding Julian months Old Persian Elamite spelling Meaning Corresponding Babylonian month
1 March–April Ādukanaiša Hadukannaš uncertain Nīsannu
2 April–May Θūravāhara Turmar Possibly “(Month of) strong spring” Ayyāru
3 May–June Θāigraciš Sākurriziš “Garlic-collecting month” Sīmannu
4 June–July Garmapada Karmabataš “Heat-station (month)” Du’ūzu
5 July–August Turnabaziš Ābu
6 August–September Karbašiyaš Ulūlū
7 September–October Bāgayādiš Bakeyatiš “(Month) of the worship of baga (god, perhaps Mithra)” Tašrītu
8 October–November *Vrkazana Markašanaš “(Month) of wolf killing” Arahsamna
9 November–December Āçiyādiya Hašiyatiš “(Month) of the worship of the fire” Kisilīmu
10 December–January Anāmaka Hanamakaš “Month of the nameless god(?)” Tebētu
11 January–February *Θwayauvā Samiyamaš “The terrible one” Šabāţu
12 February–March Viyax(a)na Miyakannaš “Digging-up (month)” Addāru

The Current Persian Calendar

As a type of Solar Calendar, the Persian Calendar officially begins with the Spring equinox and the years are designated AP for Anno Perisco. In March 2014, the year 1393 officially began in the Persian Calendar. To find out the corresponding year according to the Gregorian Calendar, you simply need to add 621 or 622 (depending on the month of the year) to a Solar Year.

The modern Persian Calendar is divided into 12 months which include:

  • 31 days in the first six months of the year
  • 30 days in the five following months of the year
  • 29 or 30 days in the final month of the year (depending on whether it is a leap year or not)

You can also have a look at the months which make up the modern Persian Calendar below for a more comprehensive understanding on when the months of the current Iranian Calendar begin and end:

NAME IRANIAN NAME START DATE DURATION
1 Farvardín فروردین 21st March 31
2 Ordibehesht اردیبهشت 21st April 31
3 Jordad خرداد 22nd May 31
4 Tir تیر 22nd June 31
5 Mordad مرداد 23rd July 31
6 Shahrivar شهریور 23rd August 31
7 Mehr مهر 23rd September 30
8 Abán آبان 23rd October 30
9 Azar آذر 22nd November 30
10 Dey دی 22nd December 30
11 Bahmán بهمن 21st January 30
12 Esfand اسفند 20th February 29/30

Persian Calendar Date Converter

To find out what the dates in the Persian Calendar are equivalent to in the commonly used Gregorian Calendar, feel free to use the Persian Calendar Date Converter.